By Michael Banks
From determining the “equation of state” of a ponytail to a zombie film shot at CERN, the world of physics has had its fair share of bizarre stories this year. Here is our pick of the best from the physicsworld.com blog.
Efflorescence on a masonry wall (Courtesy: Mattes)
One thing you can say about most houses is that they are solid – built from bricks or cement blocks. But there is a downside to such solid construction. Masonry – and older bricks in particular – tend to suck-up moisture from the ground. One symptom of rising damp is efflorescence (or “flowering out”), which refers to crystals of salts that grow out from the surface of masonry as the damp evaporates into the air. However, rather than emerging as a uniform coating of salt, the crystals tend to appear in clumps – but exactly why remained a mystery. That was until February when Marc Prat and colleagues at the University of Toulouse, France, performed experiments and computer simulations suggesting that salt flowers form where “efficient pathways” emerge at the surface. Once a crystal is established on the surface, its presence increases the flow of water through that particular pathway, further depriving surrounding less-efficient pathways of liquid. The result is regions with large crystals, and other regions with no salt. Mystery solved.
Physicists in the UK took the whole concept of “fringe science” to a new level in February by studying that hairstyle of choice for men and women of a certain disposition – the ponytail. Raymond Goldstein of the University of Cambridge, Robin Ball of the University of Warwick and Patrick Warren from shampoo-maker Unilever claim that the shape of a ponytail is defined by a competition between gravity, the elasticity of individual hairs and their mutual interactions (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 078101). And because a ponytail can contain as many as 100,000 hairs, the problem is best addressed using statistical physics. The researchers even derived an “equation of state” for a ponytail that includes what they dub a “Rapunzel number” – a dimensionless measure of ponytail length. The equation was then used to predict how the shape of a ponytail varies with length, with a real ponytail requiring an additional term that reflects hair getting frizzier as it grows longer.
The physics of hair didn’t stop there. In May Andrew Callan-Jones of the University of Montpellier, France, and colleagues at the University of Paris made a theoretical and experimental study of how things such as hair, plant tendrils and even red blood cells curl and uncurl. Despite these processes being all around us, it turns out that physicists have a relatively poor understanding of the dynamics of curling. Callan-Jones and colleagues studied how a steel strip curls by taking images – at a rate of 7000 frames per second – as it does so. The behaviour was successfully described by a mathematical model created by the team and then incorporated into a computer simulation. The researchers even applied their new-found knowledge of curling to the bursting of red blood cells – which is caused by certain nasty bacteria and involves the curling back of the cell membrane.
University of Exeter researchers Saverio Russo and Monica Craciun.
(Courtesy: University of Exeter)
A day rarely goes by here at physicsworld.com HQ when the word graphene is not mentioned; after all, it is the “wonder material”, with a seemingly endless list of bizarre properties and a plethora of potential applications. But it seems that researchers at the University of Exeter in the UK ran out of suitable, and indeed imaginative, names when describing their new graphene-based material. In May the researchers, led by physicist Monica Craciun, claimed to have created the most transparent, lightweight and flexible version of graphene yet by sandwiching molecules of ferric chloride between two layers of graphene (Adv. Mat. 10.1002/adma.201200489). So what did they call their exciting new material? Behold “GraphExeter”. “[The name] clearly delivers two key messages: the material is based on graphene and it was synthesized and characterized at Exeter,” Craciun told physicsworld.com. She also rejected suggestions from “some Internet blogs” for the slimmed-down “GraphEx”.
In what seemed like an impeccably well timed research finding, researchers at the Royal Society of Chemistry, the University of Warwick in the UK and IBM Research in Zurich released an image in late May of a new molecule they had synthesized that had an uncanny likeness to the five rings reminiscent of an event that happened in London this summer (no prizes for guessing which one). Given the resemblance, the press were all over it: “Scientists create smallest ever version of Olympics logo” screamed a headline in the Daily Mail. However, the team, led by David Fox from Warwick, had already synthesized the compound, which is dubbed Olympicene and has the chemical formula C19H12, back in 2011. What the researchers did that was new was to make an image of Olympicene with the help of an atomic force microscope at the IBM labs. The researchers are still yet to hear from the International Olympic Committee given how protective they can be of their image rights.
In July two teams of researchers from Kiel University and Hamburg University of Technology, both in Germany, fabricated a material they claim to be the lightest in the world. Dubbed Aerographite, it is a 3D network of porous carbon nanotubes and weighs only 0.2 mg per cubic centimetre, making it 75 times lighter than Styrofoam. Most lightweight materials can easily be compressed but become weak when exposed to large amounts of stress. Aerographite, however, actually becomes stronger. Aerographite weighs four times less than the hitherto lightest material in the world – a nickel material that was revealed only six months ago. The researchers say that aerographite could have innumerable applications – it could be used to make lightweight lithium-ion batteries, to build satellites and even in water-purification systems.
It seems that Fermilab physicist Dan Hooper finally hit the big time this year. Not for his latest theory on the Higgs boson or dark matter but rather through his involvement in a band called the Congregation. Guitarist Hooper formed the band around three years ago and it now consists of a drummer, bassist, singer, hornist and keyboard player. On 9 August the 1960s-style soul band opened a joint gig by US rock bands Garbage and the Flaming Lips in Madison, Wisconsin. Not resting on their laurels, band members released a new album in September. Hooper, who goes by the stage name Charlie Wayne and also writes the band’s lyrics, says that they steer clear of anything physics-related as well as any rock-band antics. “We don’t do a lot of smashing guitars and such anymore,” Hooper told physicsworld.com.
A group of PhD students have made a feature-length zombie film at the CERN particle-physics lab. Called Decay, the 75 min film follows a group of students – played by actual physicists – who are desperately trying to escape the lab while being pursued by a bunch of bloodthirsty maintenance workers who have turned into zombies after exposure to the newly discovered Higgs boson. Writer and director Luke Thompson, a PhD student at the University of Manchester in the UK, came up with the idea back in 2010. Armed with a budget of just £2000 of his own cash but with no previous experience in film-making, he assembled a cast and crew of 20 who have spent the past two years filming in basement level tunnels at CERN, which he says have a “dark, creepy atmosphere”. The film has not been authorized or endorsed by CERN, but Thompson says the lab has a “relaxed attitude” towards the project, seeing the “fun side of it”.
(Courtesy: Bletchley Park/Winning Moves)
And finally, for those of you looking for a last-minute Christmas present, how about the Alan Turing Monopoly board? Centred around the life of the mathematician and computer scientist who played a key role at the UK government’s Bletchley Park estate in deciphering German army messages during the Second World War, Alan Turing Monopoly costs a bargain £29.99. The new board is based on one housed in the Bletchley Park Museum that was hand-drawn in 1950 by William Newman – the son of Turing’s Bletchley Park mentor Max Newman. All the banknotes in the new version feature Turing’s face and instead of the usual London, Berlin or Atlantic City haunts occupying the squares, the board features locations that had an important part in Turing’s life such as Kings College, Cambridge. The special edition also includes a copy of the original hand-drawn board, complete with Newman’s own rules, as well as historical references for all the places mentioned.
You can be sure of more quirky stories from the world of physics next year. See you in 2013!
By Michael Banks
If you have ever thought about studying or working in Japan, or are just curious about the high-profile international research facilities the country has, then make sure you don’t miss a special online lecture next week given by Adarsh Sandhu from the Toyohashi University of Technology (right).
Sandhu has spent around 25 years working in Japan and he will give his personal take on physics in the country, including outlining key international research centres as well as what careers there are for researchers.
Indeed, there are both challenges and opportunities for physicists from abroad to go and work in Japan or to collaborate with Japanese researchers and Sandhu will address these as well as answer any questions you have.
The lecture is on Wednesday 10 October 2012 at 2.00 p.m. BST (9.00 a.m. EDT) and you can register for the free event via this link.
Also, make sure you don’t miss our special report on Japan, which you can view online here. The report draws together a selection of our recent articles about physics in Japan looking at, for example, the world’s first compact X-ray free-electron laser as well as a major upgrade to Japan’s famous KEKB collider.
By Michael Banks
Just a couple of weeks ago the European Commission kick-started the Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics Facility (ELI-NP) project by announcing €180m towards its construction.
ELI-NP, costing €350m and to be built near Bucharest in Romania, will generate laser pulses with a power of some 10 petawatts (1016 W) – intense enough to study nuclear transitions in unprecedented detail.
The facility is one of four centres planned as part of the huge ELI project – the others being a centre in Hungary for attosecond physics, a third working on laser-based particle-beam production in the Czech Republic, and a fourth on ultrahigh-powered lasers. The latter’s location is still up for grabs.
Along with the ITER experimental fusion reactor in Cadarache, France, and the European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, ELI is just one of a whole host of “big science” facilities set to come online in the coming decade. Indeed, the Square Kilometre Array is now nearer to construction following a decision in May to split the facility between Australia and southern Africa.
It doesn’t stop there, with physicists looking even further ahead such as to a successor to CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, a muon collider, as well as an electron–ion collider that would be able to study gluons in unprecedented detail.
In a special focus issue accompanying the October edition of Physics World, and available to view free here, we take a look at the technical challenges in building and designing some of these big science facilities.
I hope you find this focus issue stimulating and please do let us have your comments by e-mailing email@example.com.
Here’s a rundown of what’s inside:
• A phased approach – Jon Cartwright looks at the technology behind phased arrays – a key part of the planned Square Kilometre Array
• Planning the world’s next collider – An interview with linear collider director Lyn Evans on what comes next after CERN’s Large Hadron Collider
• The attraction of superconductors – Development of a magnet built from high-temperature superconductors will be at the heart of a proposed muon collider, as Tim Wogan reports
• Exploring “the mass that matters” – Peter Gwynne describes plans for an electron–ion collider – a new kind of facility that would study the properties of gluons
• New eyes for a dark world – Technology based on superconducting circuits will allow astronomers to detect every photon that arrives at a telescope’s lens, as David Appell explains
• Turkey accelerates ahead – Michael Banks travels to Ankara to hear plans for a Turkish Accelerator Centre
• Illuminating new frontiers – Brian Stephenson, director of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Photon Source, gives his opinion on why the future is bright for light sources
By Michael Banks
Japan is certainly not resting on its laurels in maintaining its world-leading position in physics.
Only last week a Japanese government committee on high-energy physics released the English-language version of its highly anticipated report looking into the country’s particle-physics research programme for the coming decade.
The 19-member committee not only recommended that Japan should take a lead in the design for a collider to study the Higgs boson, such as the International Linear Collider, but also that it should lead on plans to build a large-scale neutrino facility to study charge–parity violations in neutrino oscillations.
It is exactly for this reason – Japan’s history as a leading nation in physics – that we decided to take a closer look at physics in the country. Not only the many successes it has enjoyed, but also what challenges it faces in staying ahead.
We’ve now put together a new Physics World special report, which you can view online here, that draws together a selection of our recent articles about physics in Japan. Several of the articles are based on a week-long road trip to Japan that I went on earlier this year that included visiting Tokyo and Osaka.
In the issue we look, for example, at a major upgrade to Japan’s famous KEKB collider, a new asteroid-sample-return mission, as well as the world’s first compact X-ray free-electron laser. But Japan also faces many challenges to its world-beating status in physics, including how to entice foreign scientists to work and study in the country as well as attracting more women into physics.
I hope you find this special report stimulating and please do let us have your comments by e-mailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
Here’s a rundown of what’s inside.
• Recovering from the quake – I discuss how Japan’s World Premier Institutes – set up to attract international researchers – have fared following the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011
• The only woman in town – Mio Murao of the University of Tokyo explains how to get more women interested in physics in Japan
• Japan’s X-ray vision for the future – I travel to the remote SACLA facility, which houses the world’s first compact X-ray free-electron laser
• JAXA pushes for asteroid encore – Dennis Normile looks at plans to launch a second asteroid-sample-return mission after Japan’s successful Hayabusa probe
• Getting a grip on antimatter – Yasunori Yamazaki of the RIKEN laboratory in Tokyo describes his research on antimatter
• Coping with “Galapagos syndrome” – although Japan has introduced a number of reforms to reverse a trend of increasing isolation, some fear they may not be enough, as Dennis Normile reports
• Revamping Japan’s atom smasher – with the KEKB facility in Tsukuba undergoing a major upgrade, I describe how it could one day help to explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe
The Congregation performing live (Hooper is fourth from right). (Courtesy: D T Kindler)
By Michael Banks
It seems as if Fermilab physicist Dan Hooper has finally hit the big time. Not for his latest theory on the Higgs boson or dark matter but rather through his involvement in the soul band The Congregation.
Guitarist Hooper formed the band about three years ago and it now consists of a drummer, bass player, singer, horn player and keyboard player.
On 9 August the “60s-era soul band” opened a joint gig by the US rock bands Garbage and the Flaming Lips in Madison, Wisconsin. “The show went great – although we did get some rain,” Hooper told physicsworld.com. “We were well received, and had a great time.”
Not resting on their laurels, the band is getting ready to release its latest album on 28 September. Right Now Everything will be available to buy on the band’s website.
Hooper, who goes by the stage name Charlie Wayne and who also writes the band’s lyrics, says that the band steers clear of anything physics related, as well as any rock-band antics. “We don’t do a lot of smashing guitars and such anymore,” says Hooper.
So will the band’s success force Hooper to give up his physics career? “I can’t imagine doing that,” he says. “Doing physics is the best job someone like me could have – even compared with playing rock and roll for a living.”
Andrei Linde from Stanford University was one of nine physicists to receive the inaugural Fundamental Physics Prize. (Courtesy: L A Cicero)
By Michael Banks
Nine physicists just got one hell of a lot richer after bagging the inaugural Fundamental Physics Prize together with a cool $3m each.
If you haven’t heard of the prize before, don’t worry – I hadn’t either until last Tuesday, when it was announced that Nima Arkani-Hamed, Juan Maldacena, Nathan Seiberg and Edward Witten, all from the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, had won the prize.
They shared it with Alan Guth from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Alexei Kitaev from the California Institute of Technology, Maxim Kontsevich from the Institute of Advanced Scientific Studies in Paris, Andrei Linde from Stanford University and Ashoke Sen from the Harish-Chandra Research Institute in India. They all bagged $3m each, taking the total prize fund to a whopping $27m.
The prize has been awarded by the Russian investor Yuri Milner, who has a degree in physics from Moscow State University but who dropped out of a PhD in theoretical physics at the Lebedev Physical Institute. After a stint working at the World Bank in Washington, DC, he turned to investing in start-up companies, apparently making his millions by investing in Internet firms such as Facebook, Twitter and Zynga.
Milner has now set up the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, a not-for-profit organization that, according to its website, is “dedicated to advancing our knowledge of the universe at the deepest level”.
The foundation has established two prizes: the Fundamental Physics Prize, which “recognizes transformative advances in the field” and which was won by the nine physicists above; and the New Horizons in Physics Prize, which will be awarded to “promising junior researchers” and carries a cash reward of $100,000 for each recipient.
The Fundamental Physics Prize is even bigger than the annual science-and-religion gong from the Templeton Foundation, which gives a single winner $1.7m, as well as the Nobel Prize for Physics, which this year will be $1.2m (and possibly shared by three people) after the prize fund was cut by 20% from last year’s total.
Speaking to physicworld.com, Linde says he heard that he had won the prize only a few days before the announcement. He says he was surprised by the amount of cash on offer, but added that “physicists always complained that they get less money than the football coaches of the teams of their universities”. Linde hopes that the prize will “increase [the] prestige and morale of all people in [the] scientific community”.
This year’s winners were chosen by Milner himself, but next year’s recipients will be chosen by a selection committee of previous winners.
So if you want to get your hands on next year’s prize, then you will have to be nominated online by someone else, but there are no age restrictions and previous winners can also win the prize again.
By Michael Banks
The Fukushima nuclear accident last year “could and should have been foreseen and prevented” according to a report released yesterday by the 10-member Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission. Chaired by Kiyoshi Kurokawa, former president of the Science Council of Japan, the report says the accident was a profoundly “man-made disaster” that was “made in Japan” and could have been mitigated by a more effective human response.
The 88-page English version of the report says the accident was the result of “collusion” between the government, regulators and the plant’s operators. “They effectively betrayed the nation’s right to be safe from nuclear accidents,” the authors write.
In its introduction, Kurokawa writes that the commission’s report “catalogues a multitude of errors and wilful negligence that left the Fukushima plant unprepared”. Kurokawa adds that the “fundamental” failures of the plant were because of the “ingrained conventions of Japanese culture: our reflective obedience; our reluctance to question authority; our devotion to ‘sticking with the program’; our groupism; and our insularity”.
The Fukushima nuclear accident was caused by an earthquake and tsunami of a scale not seen in more than 1000 years, which struck north-eastern Japan at 2.46 p.m. local time on 11 March 2011.
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, located some 225 km north-east of Tokyo, seemed to withstand the 9.0 Richter-scale earthquake, with the three operating reactors turning off automatically as it struck. However, the tsunami that followed a few minutes later poured over a seawall designed to protect the nuclear plant from waves up to about 6 m high (the tsunami produced waves more than 14 m high).
The plant was then flooded, causing the back-up diesel generators to fail, and – with nothing to cool the reactors – their cores started to melt.
The report offers seven recommendations, including establishing a new regulator for nuclear power as well as a committee that would monitor this new body.
By Michael Banks
This is what a new boson looks like.
Presenting the latest results in the search for the Higgs boson at CERN this morning, Joe Incandela of the CMS experiment displayed a plot showing a clear bump in the data centred at around 125 GeV.
Incandela reported that CMS has indeed seen a new particle – that looks at the moment to be the Higgs boson – with a mass of 125 GeV. The result was given with a statistical significance of 5σ – a level that physicists call a “discovery”.
Shortly after Incandela’s talk, ATLAS spokesperson Fabiola Gianotti also reported that its detector has seen something at 126 GeV with a statistical significance of 5σ.
So we have a new particle, but more effort will be needed to work out the details.
Look out for more news and analysis on the latest results on physicsworld.com in the coming days.
An artist’s impression of the Square Kilometre Array. (Courtesy: SKA organization/Swinburne Astronomy)
By Michael Banks
After months of political wrangling, a decision finally emerged on Friday afternoon about where the €1.5bn Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be built.
SKA is a massive next-generation radio-astronomy facility consisting of about 2000 to 3000 linked antennas that will probe the first 100 million years after the Big Bang for clues about galaxy evolution, dark matter and dark energy.
For more than five years, two rival bids have been going head-to-head to host the telescope: one led by Australia and the other by South Africa.
On Friday at a meeting in Amsterdam, the SKA organization opted to split the project between the two hosts, with South Africa building a long-baseline high-resolution telescope and Australia constructing a lower-resolution array but one that can survey a wider field.
Yet, while all this seems like good news – and that was certainly the message from the dozens of press releases that appeared after the announcement – it does throw up some interesting questions.
So here are my five burning questions for SKA officials.
1. Why did the SKA organization not follow the recommendation by the independent SKA Site Advisory Committee that the project would best be built in South Africa?
2. If a split-site option was such a good solution in the first place, why was there not a solid case made for it from the start, thus potentially eliminating the need for a drawn-out site-selection process?
3. When SKA is fully complete, the South Africa bid will get the majority of the antennas – was this just a weak political decision to give the Australian-led bid some part of the project?
4. Is there a risk that SKA now effectively devolves into two separate and thus distinct projects?
5. How much will this decision increase the cost of the SKA project, given the need for more infrastructure to develop two sites; in a time of austerity could this hinder the overall plan?
We will be tackling these questions in detail for an in-depth report in the July issue of Physics World.
If you have any comments, e-mail email@example.com.
Artist’s impression of the dishes for the €1.5bn Square Kilometre Array.
(Courtesy: SPDO/Swinburne Astronomy Productions)
By Michael Banks
A decision on who will build the €1.5bn Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will have to wait after the SKA Organisation announced yesterday that no outcome had been achieved.
SKA is a massive next-generation radio-astronomy facility consisting of around 2000–3000 linked antennas that will probe the first 100 million years after the Big Bang for clues about galaxy evolution, dark matter and dark energy.
Two rival bids are going head-to-head to host the telescope: one led by Australia and the other by South Africa.
The eight members of the SKA Organisation – including China, Italy and the UK – have the final say in who will host the telescope. They met yesterday at Amsterdam’s Schiphol airport in the Netherlands to discuss the site selection advisory committee’s report, which according to leaks suggested that southern Africa had got the nod.
After the meeting the SKA Organisation issued a press release that gave no indication of a site choice, only saying that it “wished to move ahead with the site selection process”.
However, instead of going for a single winner, rumours on the blogs suggest that the SKA Organisation may opt for splitting the SKA antennas between Africa and Australasia. Indeed, this is already happening on a smaller scale via the two SKA prototypes: the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder in mid-west Australia and the MeerKAT array in the Northern Cape province of South Africa.
Yesterday’s press release alluded that the SKA Organisation may be heading in this direction. The statement says that the members “recognised that it is desirable to maintain an inclusive approach to SKA”, adding that “it is important to maximize the value from the investments made by both candidate host regions”.
The SKA Organisation has now set up a scientific working group to “explore possible implementation options that would achieve this”. The working group will report back to the SKA Organisation at a meeting in mid-May, when perhaps a final decision will be made.